However, "as time passed a demand arose for more up-to-date works in English". Wilhelm Steinitz , the first World Champion considered the "father of modern chess," extensively analyzed various double king-pawn openings in his book The Modern Chess Instructor, published in and In , E. Freeborough and the Reverend C. Ranken published the first edition of Chess Openings Modern. In , R. Queen chess The queen is the most powerful piece in the game of chess, able to move any number of squares vertically, horizontally or diagonally. Each player starts the game with one queen, placed in the middle of the first rank next to the king; because the queen is the strongest piece, a pawn is promoted to a queen in the vast majority of cases.
In the game shatranj , the ancestor of chess that included only male figures, the closest thing to the queen was the ferz , a weak piece only able to move or capture one step diagonally and not at all in any other direction; the modern chess queen gained power in the 15th century. In most languages the piece is known as "queen" or "lady".
Asian and Eastern European languages tend to refer to it as minister or advisor. In Polish it is known as the hetman — the name of a major historical military-political office, while in Estonian it is called lipp; the white queen starts on d1, while the black queen starts on d8. With the chessboard oriented the white queen starts on a white square and the black queen starts on a black square—thus the mnemonics "queen gets her color", "queen on color", or "the dress matches the shoes ".
The queen can be moved any number of unoccupied squares in a straight line vertically, horizontally, or diagonally, thus combining the moves of the rook and bishop.
The queen captures by occupying the square. Although both players start with one queen each, a pawn can be promoted to any of several types of pieces, including a queen, when the pawn is moved to the player's furthest rank; such a queen created by promotion can be an additional queen, or if the player's queen has been captured, a replacement queen. Pawn promotion to a queen is colloquially called queening , by far the most common type of piece a pawn is promoted to due to the relative power of a queen.
Ordinarily, the queen is stronger than a rook and a bishop together, while less strong than two rooks , it is always disadvantageous to exchange the queen for a single piece other than the enemy's queen. The reason that the queen is stronger than a combination of a rook and bishop though they control the same number of squares, is twofold.
First, the queen is more mobile than the rook and the bishop, as the entire power of the queen can be transferred to another location in one move, while transferring the entire firepower of a rook and bishop requires two moves, the bishop always being restricted to squares of one color.
Second, the queen is not hampered by the bishop's inability to control squares of the opposite color to the square on which it stands. A factor in favor of the rook and bishop is that they can attack a square twice, while a queen can only do so once. However, experience has shown that this factor is less significant than the points favoring the queen; the queen is strongest when the board is open, when the enemy king is poorly defended, or when there are loose pieces in the enemy camp.
Because of her long range and ability to move in multiple directions, the queen is well equipped to execute forks. Compared to other long range pieces, the queen is stronger in closed positions. Beginners develop the queen early in the game, hoping to plunder the enemy position and deliver an early checkmate such as Scholar's mate. This can expose the harassed queen to attacks by weaker pieces causing the player to lose time.
Experienced players prefer to delay developing the queen, instead develop minor pieces in the opening. Early queen attacks are rare in high level chess, but there are some openings with early queen development that are used by high level players.
For example, the Scandinavian Defense , which features queen moves by Black on the second and third moves is considered sound, has been played at the world championship level; some less common examples have been observed in high-level games. The Danvers Opening , characterized as a beginner's opening, has been played by the strong American grandmaster Hikaru Nakamura. A queen exchange marks the beginning of the endgame , but there are queen endgames, sometimes queens are exchanged in the opening, long before the endgame.
A common goal in the endgame is to promote a pawn to a queen; as the queen has the largest range and mobility and king vs. A queen sacrifice is the deliberate sacrifice of a queen in order to gain a more favorable tactical position. The queen was the counsellor or prime minister or vizier , its only move was one square diagonally.
Around CE its move was enhanced to allow it to move two squares with jump onto a same-colored square for its first move, to help the sides to come into contact sooner; the fers changed into the queen over time. The first surviving mention of this piece as a queen or similar was "regina" in the Einsiedeln Poem, written in Latin around and preserved in a monastery at Einsiedeln in Switzerland ; some surviving early medieval pieces depict the piece as a queen, the word fers became grammatically feminized in several languages, for example alferza in Spanish and fierce or fierge in French, before it was replaced with names such as reine or dame.
The Carmina Burana refer to the queen as femina and coniunx, the name Amazon has sometimes been seen. In Russian it keeps its Persian name of ferz. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Queen's Gambit Declined , after 2. The QGD itself offers a wide range of transpositional possibilities. After 2. Dutch Defense , after 2. English Defense , after 2. French Defence , after 2. Franco-Benoni , after 2. This can transpose into various types of Benoni Defense after 3. Nf3 cxd4 4. Archived from the original on Transpo Tricks in Chess. See review at "Transpo Tricks in Chess — review". The Oxford Companion to Chess. Oxford University Press.
Ideas Behind the Chess Openings. Random House. List of openings theory table List of chess gambits Irregular Quick checkmates Fool's mate Scholar's mate. Bishop and knight checkmate King and pawn vs king Opposite-coloured bishops Pawnless endgame Queen and pawn vs queen Queen vs pawn Rook and bishop vs rook Rook and pawn vs rook Lucena position Philidor position Strategy fortress opposition Tarrasch rule triangulation Zugzwang Study Tablebase Two knights endgame Wrong bishop Wrong rook pawn.
Categories : Chess terminology.
Revision History. Correspondence chess. Related Images. YouTube Videos. Part of a Staunton chess set Left to right: white king , black rook , black queen , white pawn , black knight , white bishop. Some of these have their own pages, like fork and pin. Envelope used for the adjournment of a match game Efim Geller vs. Bent Larsen , Copenhagen The history of chess can be traced back nearly years, although the earliest origins are uncertain.
The earliest predecessor of the game probably originated in India, before the 6th century AD; a minority of historians believe the game originated in China. Real-size resin reproductions of the 12th-century Lewis chessmen. The top row shows king, queen, and bishop. The bottom row shows knight, rook, and pawn. Wilhelm Steinitz , the first World Chess Champion.
A chessboard is the type of board game used in the game chess, over which the chess pawns are laid. It's usually square in shape, with an alternating pattern of two colours between its subdivisions. A wooden chessboard with Staunton pieces. Chessboards during a match of Bughouse.
Spatial position of the boards in Raumschach. The pieces that belong to each player are distinguished by color. Original Staunton chess pieces , left to right: pawn, rook, knight, bishop, queen, and king. Depicted are the king, queen, rook, archer or bishop , knight, pawn or soldier , courier, man or rath or sage , and jester. The Modern Benoni is a chess opening that begins with the moves 1.
Frank James Marshall, inventor of the Modern Benoni.