It developed from both the Judeo-Christian tradition and the cultural values of the nomadic Bedouin tribes of Arabia. Islam expanded into areas controlled by the Byzantine Empire largely Greek-speaking and Orthodox Christian, but with a diverse population and the Sassanian Empire officially Zoroastrian and Persian-speaking, but also diverse. As Islam expanded, the new Islamic societies adapted and synthesized many of the customs they encountered. As a result, Muslims in different areas of the world created for themselves a wide array of cultural traditions.
The culture of Islamic Spain, for example, was so cosmopolitan that some Christian and Jewish parents complained that their children were more interested in developing their knowledge of Arabic than in learning Latin or Hebrew, respectively. Many elements of Islamic society became integral parts of medieval and Renaissance European culture, like the notion of chivalry, and certain forms of music the lute, the arabesque and poetry. On the eastern end of the Islamic world, many Indonesians converted to Islam between the 15th and 17th centuries.
Preexisting animist beliefs were often incorporated into the local practice of Islam. Within Islam, there are many different communities. Adherents of Islam may be more or less observant, conservative or liberal. Sufism is the mystical tradition of Islam, where direct experience of the divine is emphasized. The 13th-century poet Jalaluddin Rumi is a well-known Sufi figure whose work has become popular in the United States today. Whirling dervishes are dancers who are entranced in their experience of Sufism. Muslims believe that Allah the Arabic word for God sent his revelation, the Quran , to the prophet Muhammad in the seventh century C.
The Quran contains verses surahs in Arabic that tell Muslims to worship one god, and explains how they should treat others properly. Another historical text, the Hadith, written by scholars after the death of Muhammad, describes Muhammad's life as an example of pious behavior, proscribes law for the community based on the Quran and the example of Muhammad, and explains how certain rituals should be performed.
Observant Muslims practice five principles pillars of Islam: orally declaring their faith shahadah ; praying five times a day salat ; fasting in the daylight hours during the month of Ramadan sawm ; giving a share of their income for charity zakat ; and making a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime if they can afford it hajj. Many Muslims also observe dietary rules, in origin similar to those of Judaism, that forbid certain foods like pork , outlaw alcohol, and dictate how animals should be slaughtered for food. The Muslim calendar is lunar, and shifts in relation to the solar calendar.
Just as Christians count years starting with the year of Jesus's birth, Muslims count years beginning with Muhammad's move from Mecca to Medina in C. Muslim years are labeled as A.
Major Muslim festivals include Id al-Fitr the Fast-Breaking Festival, celebrated at the end of Ramadan and Id al-Adha the Festival of Sacrifice, the commemoration of Abraham's willingness to sacrifice Ishmail which takes place during the month of pilgrimage. Muslims believe in a Day of Judgment, when righteous souls will go to heaven and wrongdoers will go to hell.
Islam sees Judaism and Christianity as earlier versions of Islam, revelations given within the same tradition by Allah but misunderstood over time by their followers. Muslims see Islam as the final, complete, and correct revelation in the monotheistic tradition of the three faiths. The Islamic tradition recognizes many of the Jewish and Christian prophets, including Abraham, Moses, and Jesus although he is not considered to be the son of God.
Many non-Muslims mistakenly believe that Muhammad is the equivalent of Jesus in the Islamic tradition; in fact, it is the Quran that stands in the same central position in Islam as Jesus does in Christianity.
Muhammad himself is not divine, but a prophet chosen by God to deliver his message and an example of piety to emulate. Jews and Christians are specifically protected in the Quran as Peoples of the Book, reinforcing their spiritual connection to Islam by virtue of having been given revelations from God. The Islamic legal tradition has upheld the rights of Jews and Christians to maintain their beliefs and practices within their communities in Islamic lands, and this policy of tolerance has generally been upheld.
This story was aired during the military standoff at Bethlehem's Church of the Nativity. Saudi Time Bomb?
In the s, alienated Americans flock to the promises of Christian fundamentalism. What is religious militancy and its relationship to terrorism? Lesson plans: Who Wears a Veil? Stereotypes: More Than Meets the Eye. Judaism A brief history of Judaism Judaism is the oldest surviving monotheistic religion, arising in the eastern Mediterranean in the second millennium B.
Jewish cultural groups Homeless Jews arrive in search of a new life, Haifa, Palestine, July 21, Judaism in Israel and America There is great difference of opinion among Israeli Jews over the role Jewish religious law should play in the state. Judaism's views of Christianity and Islam Jews do not believe in the prophets after the Jewish prophets, including Jesus and Muhammad. If you're like many Christians, prayer comes as an afterthought. Perhaps you sneak in a short prayer at the end of a long day or maybe you pray before digging into your favorite meal.
What about when you face challenges in daily life?
The more you infuse prayer into your routine, the more connected you'll feel to your faith. Prayer can feel intimidating, but it doesn't have to be. Don't think of it as a grand oratory; eloquence isn't a necessity. When in doubt, refer to this inspiring Martin Luther quote: "The fewer the words, the better the prayer.
You can also visit all our social media sites and see what the excitement is all about. The baptistery is from an earlier period and now located to the north of the nave. Holman QuickSource Bible Dictionary. The construction of the basilica in the proximity of the prytaneion would not have been a coincidence. Today, these deities form a melting pot in the New World. Last but certainly not least is Agios Georgios of Omorfokklisia, where there is a wooden statue of Saint George, a cult object perhaps unique to the Orthodox Christianity.
Instead of striving to deliver a perfect, extended prayer on occasion, opt for incorporating short, simple prayers into key moments throughout each day. There is no set number of prayers you need to strive for, but you should eventually feel as if prayer is a key part of your otherwise secular pursuits. It may take a few weeks or even months before prayer feels like a natural aspect of your routine, but your persistence will ultimately pay off.
If forgetfulness remains the primary obstacle between you and regular prayer, don't hesitate to use a prayer app or written reminders to keep you on track. How often do you discuss your faith with other Christians? Even a brief interaction with a fellow believer can energize you and renew your commitment. Options abound; get involved with your local church, join a Bible study, or sign up for a faith-based volunteer effort. You don't need to be surrounded by fellow believers at all times, but regular interaction will keep you from feeling hopeless or alone.
If all else fails, turn to technology for support; a quick search will deliver a myriad of faith-based forums and social media groups.
Faith is about more than prayer and church attendance. Both are important, of course, but daily action is also essential. Matthew instructs, "Let your light shine before others, that they may see your good deeds and glorify your Father in heaven. He told me that his life was not complete until he was involved in a serious automobile accident; prior to this his life was miserable and headed for a sure disaster. His vehicle was totaled, but there was not one scratch on his body—he said that he took it as a warning that he was headed down the wrong direction in his life.
He lived a wild life in the valley, but received a gift from God while in the valley. And so the valleys eventhough they are temporary they actually do have a purpose.
[KINDLE] Beyond the Crossroads:Traveling Like Christians on Streets of Faith by Emmett Diggs. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can. If you're at a crossroads then Beyond the Crossroads is for you. Here's good advice-don't stay there. The message here is about how to keep traveling the.
This is why it is so important for you and I to maintain our faith like David did while we are the valleys. God allowed His only begotten Son to go through the wilderness and be tempted by the devil, think about it! Jesus Christ Himself was not exempted from suffering especially on the Cross , He was not exempted from loneliness, and He was not exempted from temptation or discouragement or anything else that we ourselves have to face.
He experienced loss the death of John the Baptist, etc. And Jesus, by going through the same things we go through enables us to be like Him because we have been given an example of how to get through the valleys of life. Meaning that the Lord is with me through my life and beyond. Do you understand fully what David is saying here? No matter where I go, no matter what I have to go through…God is with me! And if God is with me I actually have no need to be afraid. In the valley or on the mountaintop no matter where it may be we have His presence in our pain, His love in our loss, and His patience despite our complaints.
Should we be afraid of a shadow? A shadow is caused by an object blocking the light and sometimes a shadow can make things look gloomy and dark but with every shadow we need to look towards the Light. Jesus is the Light of life, He is the Good Shepherd and a good shepherd does not lead His sheep into a deep dark valley and just leave them there.
He does not watch over us from outside of the valley, He does not call us from the other side of the valley because He is with us through the valley. Well, have you any valleys in your life? Have you any rivers that seem un-crossable?